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Allergy is the body’s exaggerated response to substances that are not normally harmful. This exaggerated response can sometimes be in the whole body, sometimes in a part of the body:
If in sight; allergic conjunctivitis,
If in the upper respiratory tract; allergic rhinitis (hay fever),
If in the lungs; asthma,
If on the skin; called urticaria, eczema or contact dermatitis,
Drug allergy, food allergy concerns the whole body.
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Allergy is a very common disease. Genetic predisposition and environmental factors play an important role in its emergence. The immune system normally protects our body against germs and harmful substances such as bacteria and viruses. However, if the immune system starts to give exaggerated responses to substances that are not normally harmful, it is called allergy. The immune systems of allergic patients are extremely sensitive to certain substances. When faced with these substances, the immune system gets out of control and allergic complaints such as itching, redness, swelling, spasm, tearing, and runny nose occur. The worst is anaphylaxis, it affects the whole body is an emergency. The substance that initiates the allergy is called the allergen. Pollen, mold, pet dander, house dust, drugs and foods are the most common allergens. Rarely, an allergy starts without an allergen. For example, sunlight, cold, effort, vibration also cause allergies in some people. There is a genetic predisposition to allergic diseases, and if both parents have allergies, you will most likely have them too. Having allergies on the mother’s side increases the chance. Complaints vary according to the allergen and the body’s response.
In lower respiratory tract allergies
- Shortness of breath,
- There are complaints of rapid fatigue
- Allergic conjunctivitis
- Watering eyes,
- There are complaints of itching and edema.
- In upper respiratory tract allergies
- Runny nose
- Sneezing attacks,
- Nasal congestion,
- Burning itching in the throat,
- Sinusitis attacks happen.
- In food allergy
- Swelling in the abdomen,
- Fast satiation,
- Nausea, abdominal pain,
- There are complaints of dyspepsia and indigestion.
- In skin allergy
- Skin blisters,
- There are complaints of flaking.
- Drug allergies and insect stings cause allergic reactions involving the whole body.
- Many of the above-mentioned complaints can start at the same time.
How is allergy diagnosed?
Allergy complaints are confused with many diseases. Allergy testing is done to understand whether these complaints are caused by allergies. There are several types of allergy tests:
It is the most common allergy test. Also called PRICK TEST. Suspected allergen substance is applied to the skin and it is checked whether it reacts or not.
The presence of redness, itching and swelling in that area is positive, meaning that there is an allergy.
It is an uncomfortable test for the patient.
It is possible to test many substances with this method.
It can be applied to children and babies.
It is checked whether there is a reaction against allergen substances in the blood sample.
It is a more comfortable test for the patient.
IgE count, Eosinophil count and Specific IgE presence in the blood are investigated.
In this way, especially respiratory allergies and food allergies can be detected easily.
The most commonly used drugs in the treatment of allergy are antihistamine drugs, decongestants and cortisone drugs. There are cream, tablet, eye drops, nose drops and syrup forms of these drugs, but they must be used under the supervision of a doctor.
Various vaccines are also used in the treatment of allergies.